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Antimicrobial Drug Resistance (AMDR)

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          e. Patient Education



e. Patient Education

People need knowledge to make informed decisions about how to prevent infection and reduce transmission of infectious diseases through simple, cheap and effective measures. Such measures include prevention of:

  • Diarrheal disease through hand washing, using safe water sources and containers, boiling unsafe water and using latrines
  • Malaria through the use of bed nets impregnated with insecticide
  • Sexually transmitted infections through the use of condoms
  • HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C through the avoidance of injections (unless oral medicines cannot be used, in which case a sterile needle and syringe must be used)
  • Benefits of vaccines to reduce morbidity and mortality 

AMDR carries more severe consequences in developing countries, and is promoted by the:

  • Careless use of antibiotics globally
  • Lack of adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen
  • Poor environmental hygiene and antibiotic use in agriculture or contamination of the food supply chain by antibiotics
  • Farmed and domesticated animals receiving preventive

Information on preventive measures can be successfully introduced into school and adult health educational curriculum (World Health Organization 2005). Specifically, the fundamentals of AMDR can be included into biology classes and become part of regular occupational health information awareness programs. Educating prospective parents is an effective mode of communicating and teaching AMDR facts. Properly managed media campaigns targeting patient behavior can contribute to reducing the rate of inappropriate antibiotic use (Gonzales et al. 2008; Hemo et al. 2009)




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Table of Contents

ACTIVITY OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
SECTION ONE: The global threat of AMDR
SECTION TWO: Understanding AMDR
    1. Etiology and Epidemiology
    2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance
    3. Major AMDR Pathogens
       a. Acinetobacter baumanii
       b. Clostridium difficile
       c. Escherichia coli
       d. HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection
       e. Influenza virus
       f. Malaria (Plasmodium)
       g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
       h. Streptococcus pneumoniae
       i. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB
       j. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
SECTION THREE: Control and Prevention of AMDR
    1. Implications of Microbial Resistance
    2. Infections and Chronic Diseases
    3. Policies and Best Practices
       a. Antimicrobial Drug Stewardship
       b. Surveillance
       c. Environmental Decontamination
       d. Infection Control
       e. Patient Education
    4. Antibiotic Development Pipeline
SECTION FOUR: Conclusions
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
GLOSSARY
Test Questions
Program Evaluation
Self Assessment


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