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Antimicrobial Drug Resistance (AMDR)

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          c. Environmental Decontamination



c. Environmental Decontamination

The role of environmental reservoirs, such as surfaces and medical equipment, in the transmission of MDROs has been the subject of several reports. Monitoring for adherence to recommended environmental cleaning practices is an important determinant for success in controlling transmission of MDROs and other pathogens in the environment. The interior design of healthcare facilities is receiving increased attention in the prevention of transmission of AMDR microorganisms, especially MRSA. High-touch surfaces covered with copper alloys are being tested as potential countermeasures for AMDR, along with control of interior temperatures and humidity (Michels et al. 2009). 

Increased pollution of effluent potable water (Lateef 2004; Naddeo et al. 2009) and antibiotic uses in agriculture also contribute to AMDR spread. Extensive use of antibiotics in the food chain can contribute to the development of AMDR.




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Table of Contents

ACTIVITY OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
SECTION ONE: The global threat of AMDR
SECTION TWO: Understanding AMDR
    1. Etiology and Epidemiology
    2. Incidence and Prevalence of Microbial Resistance
    3. Major AMDR Pathogens
       a. Acinetobacter baumanii
       b. Clostridium difficile
       c. Escherichia coli
       d. HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection
       e. Influenza virus
       f. Malaria (Plasmodium)
       g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
       h. Streptococcus pneumoniae
       i. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB
       j. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
SECTION THREE: Control and Prevention of AMDR
    1. Implications of Microbial Resistance
    2. Infections and Chronic Diseases
    3. Policies and Best Practices
       a. Antimicrobial Drug Stewardship
       b. Surveillance
       c. Environmental Decontamination
       d. Infection Control
       e. Patient Education
    4. Antibiotic Development Pipeline
SECTION FOUR: Conclusions
REFERENCES
APPENDICES
GLOSSARY
Test Questions
Program Evaluation
Self Assessment


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